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Is MQTT the IoT Protocol to Rule them All?

Is MQTT the IoT Protocol to Rule them All?


What Is the MQTT Protocol?

Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) is a lightweight messaging protocol designed for constrained devices and low-bandwidth, high-latency, or unreliable networks. MQTT provides a simple and efficient method of remote control and monitoring, which is suitable for various Internet of Things (IoT) applications.

The MQTT protocol operates over TCP/IP, and it uses a publish/subscribe model. In this model, the client devices, also known as publishers, send their data to a broker, which is a central server. Other client devices, known as subscribers, receive the data from the broker based on their subscribed topics. Therefore, MQTT allows data to be shared between multiple devices in a decentralized and decoupled manner, facilitating efficient communication in IoT networks.

One of the critical aspects of MQTT is its simplicity. The protocol has only a small number of commands and uses a straightforward binary format for data transmission. This simplicity enables MQTT to be implemented quickly and efficiently on a wide range of devices, from powerful servers to tiny sensors.

The History and Evolution of MQTT Protocol

The MQTT protocol was initially designed in 1999 by IBM and Arcom (now Eurotech) to connect oil pipeline sensors over satellite links with high latency and low bandwidth. The primary goal was to create a simple, lightweight protocol to efficiently transmit telemetry data over these challenging networks.

Over the years, MQTT has been continuously improved and adapted to meet the evolving needs of IoT applications. The protocol has gained widespread acceptance due to its simplicity, efficiency, and scalability. In 2013, MQTT was adopted as an open standard by the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS), and since then, it has been widely used in various industries, including automotive, energy, healthcare, and home automation.

Today, MQTT is considered one of the key enabling technologies for the Internet of Things. Its ability to handle massive amounts of data from millions of devices and its low resource requirements make MQTT an ideal choice for many IoT applications.

Strengths of MQTT for IoT Use Cases

Low Bandwidth Requirements

In the world of IoT, where devices often communicate over constrained networks, the ability to transmit data with minimal bandwidth is crucial. MQTT excels in this area due to its compact binary message format and efficient publish/subscribe model. By using MQTT, IoT devices can communicate their data compactly and efficiently, which minimizes bandwidth usage and reduces communication costs.

Efficient Power Usage for Battery-Operated Devices

One of the major challenges in IoT is power efficiency, especially for battery-operated devices. MQTT offers a solution to this challenge by efficiently using network resources. By using a persistent TCP connection and a keep-alive mechanism, MQTT minimizes network traffic and reduces power consumption. This feature makes MQTT a suitable choice for battery-operated IoT devices, as it can help extend their battery life.

Ease of Implementation and Scalability

MQTT is known for its simplicity and ease of implementation. The protocol has only a few commands, and its binary message format is straightforward to parse. This simplicity makes MQTT easy to implement on a wide range of devices, from powerful servers to tiny IoT sensors.

Moreover, MQTT is highly scalable. Its publish/subscribe model allows for efficient data distribution among a large number of devices. Furthermore, MQTT brokers can be clustered to handle massive amounts of data and millions of clients, making MQTT an ideal choice for large-scale IoT applications.

Quality of Service Levels Suitable for Various IoT Scenarios

MQTT offers three Quality of Service (QoS) levels, which provide different guarantees for message delivery. This feature allows MQTT to be suitable for various IoT scenarios, from low-priority data monitoring to critical control applications. By choosing the appropriate QoS level, developers can ensure that their IoT applications meet their specific reliability and performance requirements.

Limitations of MQTT in IoT

Despite its strengths, MQTT also has its limitations:

Need for a Constantly Available Network Connection

One of the main limitations of MQTT is its reliance on a continuously available network connection. Because MQTT uses a persistent TCP connection for communication, it requires a constant network link between the client device and the broker. This requirement can be challenging in some IoT scenarios where intermittent or unreliable network connectivity.

Security Concerns and the Need for Additional Security Measures

While MQTT includes some basic security features, such as username/password authentication and SSL/TLS encryption, it does not provide comprehensive security measures. For example, MQTT does not support role-based access control or message integrity checks. Therefore, additional security measures, such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and secure coding practices, may be required to ensure the security of MQTT-based IoT systems.

Limited Support for Non-Text Data Types

Another limitation of MQTT is its limited support for non-text data types. MQTT messages are binary, and the protocol does not include any built-in mechanisms for encoding or decoding non-text data types. Therefore, developers must implement their own data serialization and deserialization methods, which can add complexity to MQTT-based IoT applications.

Alternative IoT Protocols


The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is another protocol designed for IoT devices. CoAP is a web transfer protocol designed to be used in constrained environments, such as low-power and lossy networks. It’s built on top of the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) instead of TCP, which makes it more lightweight than MQTT.

However, being a UDP-based protocol, CoAP doesn’t guarantee reliable delivery of messages. While it does have a built-in mechanism for confirming the receipt of messages, it doesn’t have the same level of reliability as MQTT’s Quality of Service levels. Also, being a request-response protocol, CoAP doesn’t support the publish-subscribe model, which can limit its scalability compared to MQTT.


The Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) is a powerful messaging protocol that provides a range of features, such as message orientation, queuing, routing, reliability, and security. Unlike MQTT and CoAP, AMQP isn’t specifically designed for IoT use cases but can be used for such purposes.

While AMQP provides more features than MQTT, it’s also more complex and heavier, which can be a drawback for IoT devices with limited resources. However, its support for the publish-subscribe model and its strong reliability and security features can make it a suitable choice for certain IoT use cases.


WebSockets is a protocol that provides full-duplex communication between a client and a server over a single, long-lived connection. This makes it ideal for real-time communication use cases. WebSockets isn’t specifically designed for IoT, but it can be used in conjunction with other protocols, such as MQTT, to enable real-time communication for IoT devices.

The main advantage of WebSockets is its ability to provide real-time communication. However, it’s heavier than MQTT and CoAP, and it doesn’t have the same level of reliability as MQTT.


The Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is a protocol primarily used for instant messaging and presence information. It’s a flexible protocol that can be extended to support a wide range of applications, including IoT.

While XMPP isn’t as lightweight as MQTT or CoAP, it’s highly extensible, which makes it a versatile choice for different IoT use cases. However, like WebSockets, XMPP doesn’t have the same level of reliability as MQTT, and it can be more complex to implement.

Is MQTT the IoT Protocol to Rule Them All?

Just as TCP/IP became the foundation of the modern Internet, MQTT has the potential to become the standard protocol for the Internet of Things. Despite some limitations, MQTT’s strengths — its simplicity, lightweight nature, and efficiency — make it particularly well-suited to the requirements of IoT applications.

Here’s why MQTT is well-positioned to become the de facto standard for IoT:

  1. Designed for IoT from the Ground Up: MQTT was designed with the constraints and requirements of IoT in mind, such as minimal bandwidth usage, efficient power usage, and easy implementation even on resource-constrained devices. This gives MQTT an inherent advantage over protocols adapted for IoT use but not originally designed for it.
  2. Proven Scalability: MQTT has proven its ability to scale to meet the needs of large IoT systems. With its efficient publish/subscribe model and the ability to cluster brokers, MQTT can effectively manage communication between millions of devices, a crucial requirement as the number of connected IoT devices continues to grow.
  3. Quality of Service Levels: MQTT’s Quality of Service (QoS) levels provide flexible options for message delivery guarantees. From telemetry data that can tolerate occasional lost messages to critical control messages that must be reliably delivered, MQTT’s QoS levels can meet various application needs.
  4. Wide Adoption and Community Support: MQTT has already seen wide adoption in the IoT industry and has robust community support. This adoption and support make MQTT a reliable choice, as developers can count on continued protocol development, a wide range of libraries and tools, and an active community for advice and problem-solving.
  5. Integration with Other Protocols: While MQTT shines in IoT device communication, it can also integrate effectively with other protocols. For example, it can be used over WebSockets for real-time browser-based applications, providing added flexibility.

Admittedly, MQTT isn’t perfect. It requires a persistent network connection, its built-in security features are basic — and it doesn’t inherently support non-text data types. However, these limitations can be mitigated. Network resilience can be improved with careful system design and the use of modern network protocols. Additional security measures can protect MQTT communications, and serialization/deserialization methods can handle non-text data.

In conclusion, MQTT, despite its limitations, has significant strengths and benefits that make it an excellent fit for the IoT industry. Its design, scalability, flexibility, and wide adoption and support make it a strong contender to become the IoT protocol to rule them all, just like TCP/IP did for the internet. However, the diversity of IoT applications means that other protocols will continue to play an important role. The future may not belong to a single protocol but to an ecosystem of protocols working together, with MQTT at its core.

Featured Image Credit: Provided by the Author; freepik.com; Thank you!

Gilad Maayan

Technology writer

I’m a technology writer with 20 years of experience working with leading technology brands including SAP, Imperva, CheckPoint, and NetApp. I am a three-time winner of the International Technical Communication Award. Today I lead Agile SEO, the leading marketing and content agency in the technology industry.


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